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W4195 Marine Conservation Ecology

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A figure from David Starr Jordan’s seminal work on Pacific fishes. Understanding the distribution of fishes is just one of the ways conservation biologists prioritize areas for conservation

In this class we will take a deeper look at some of the complexities of doing conservation biology work in the marine realm.  We will first examine the properties of water, both physical and societal, which make doing marine conservation special. We will then explore the challenges and threats facing both specific habitats and those that are more general to all marine realms. This class will draw from all marine ecosystems but we will have a special emphasis placed on coral reefs as they are the most diverse marine ecosystem, and my area of specialty. This course will be complementary to #G6905 Conservation Biology, and while there may be some overlap, this course will be fundamentally different, and it is therefore appropriate for students to take them both.

Course Syllabus:

W4195 Marine Conservation Ecology

Joshua Drew, Instructor

Jd2977@columbia.edu (212) 854-7807 @Drew_Lab

 

Tuesdays and Thursdays 10:10-11:30

 

Course Goal:

Working within a marine setting provides unique challenges to conservation biologists. Some of these challenges are physical owing to the properties of water; some are biological due to the differences in dispersal, connectivity, and biotic spatial scales covered by marine organisms, and some are social, due to the myriad of legal and non-governmental entities having some sway over how people act on the ocean. This class will provide students with a strong foundation in the complexities of marine conservation biology.

Course Requirements:

Classes each week will consist of lectures on selected topics followed by discussion. The course will incorporate both student presentations and debates. Because of the interactive nature of the class, student participation is a critical component of the grade. This class does not fall on any Columbia recognized holidays and there will be no makeups. You will be responsible for all content covered in class.

Student participation:

Everyone in this class should feel comfortable to express an idea, even if the idea is not a popular one. We encourage intellectual controversy and believe it is how we learn best. I expect all students to abide by the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences’ code of academic integrity (http://gsas.columbia.edu/content/academic-integrity-and-responsible-conduct-research) or the Columbia College’s code of academic integrity (https://www.college.columbia.edu/academics/academicintegrity). Breaches of the student code such as cheating and plagiarism (that is, taking credit for the work of others) will not be tolerated, and any violation of the student code will be referred to the Dean’s Office.

Title IX makes it clear that violence and harassment based on sex and gender are Civil Rights offenses subject to the same kinds of accountability and the same kinds of support applied to offenses against other protected categories such as race, national origin, etc. If you or someone you know has been harassed or assaulted, you can find the appropriate resources at http://sexualrespect.columbia.edu.

I will provide accommodations for students with documented disabilities; please check with https://health.columbia.edu/disability-services to ensure I get notified if this is applicable. Lastly, I want to maintain a respectful atmosphere where students are free to discuss topics in a safe and collegial atmosphere. We will be covering some potentially contentious topics in class, discussion is encouraged, disrespect is not.

 

Course Evaluation:

This course will consist of lectures, discussions and active learning opportunities, thus class participation and readings are going to factor heavily in the grade. You will have six evaluations.

1) Students will participate in two debates. The first will be on the topic “Are species or ecosystems the best target of conservation?” while the second will ask “How (or even should) will we conserve present biodiversity in the light of climate change?” Students will be expected to state their feelings and defend those opinions in an intelligent manner when asked questions by other students and instructors

2 & 3) There will be two tests. They will consist of a combination of short answer and longer form answer

4) You will have to do one blog entry (700 words or thereabouts) in which you will describe your final research paper in non-technical terms.

5) Class project. I want my students to have the experience of conducting primary research and presenting that. This summer the International Marine Conservation Congress will be held in St. John’s Newfoundland and we will be submitting a poster as a class, and if the data are good enough writing a paper. This will have several stages. We will have to conduct preliminary data before submitting an abstract, analyze those data, and submit the abstract by The 7th of March. We will then use our preliminary data to guide a more extensive data collection and analysis with the goal of producing a poster. We will have a poster and a preliminary draft of a manuscript done by the end of the semester. If our poster is accepted I will present at the meeting, unless a number of people from the class wish to go (I would prefer that but don’t want to make you incur the cost of flying to Canada). This will be a lot of work but the advantages are that at the end of the year you will have a conference presentation and (potentially) a paper you can put on your C.V. I will also make alternative arrangements for students who would prefer not to work on the project.

Screen Shot 2015-12-27 at 4.08.15 PM

The hiking outside of St. John’s looks to be amazing

 

  • Debate 1 15%
  • Debate 2 15%
  • Test 1 15%
  • Test 2 15%
  • Class participation & Blog 15%
  • Class project 25%

 

Course outline:

January 19th 2016

Introduction, the liquid environment, physical properties of water.

 January 21st 2016

History of marine conservation. Royal fish, Beaverton and Holt, EEZs marine conservation in other cultures

 January 26th 2016

Marine biodiversity- scale, distribution, evolution.

January 28th 2016

Place and Effort based conservation

February 2nd, 2016

Kinds of marine conservation practices. MPA

February 4th 2016

Threats habitat fragmentation, connectivity reserve design, representation

February 9th 2016

The legal environment, what laws govern marine realms?

February 11th 2016

Fisheries regulation, stakeholder involvement

February 16th 2016

Debate: Species or Ecosystems

February 18th 2016

Invasive species

February 23rd 2016

Long-lived marine animal conservation, sharks, whales

February 25th 2016

Test 1

March 1st, 2016

International fishing regulations, tuna, orange roughy, Chilean sea bass

March 3rd 2016

Tools for Conservation Biology – Marxan etc. POSTER ABSTRACT DUE

 March 8th 2016

Linked Systems: Ridge to Reef

March 10th 2016

Special Guest: Holly Kindsvater

March 15th, 2016

Spring Break

March 17th, 2016

Spring Break

March 22nd, 2016

Threats, Eutrophication, Acidification

March 24th, 2016

Invertebrate ecology and conservation

March 29th, 2016

Zonation and invertebrate community biology

March 31st 2016

Seagrasses, Estuaries and Mangroves

April 5th, 2016

Ecology of coral reefs

April 7th 2016

Debate: Climate Change and conservation

April 12th 2016

Test 2 

April 14th 2016

Sustainable tourism

April 19th 2016

Indigenous voices

April 21st 2016

Small scale fisheries

April 26th 2016

Deep Sea Conservation

April 28th 2016

Success stories  POSTER DUE

TBD

Final Exam

May 6th 2016

Final Paper Due

 

Resources:

January 19th 2016

No reading assigned

 January 21st 2016

Barrett, James H., Alison M. Locker, and Callum M. Roberts. “The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 271.1556 (2004): 2417-2421.

Johannes, Robert E. “The case for data-less marine resource management: examples from tropical nearshore finfisheries.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13.6 (1998): 243-246.

 

January 26th 2016

Roberts, Callum M., et al. “Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs.Science 295.5558 (2002): 1280-1284.

Ludt, William B., and Luiz A. Rocha. “Shifting seas: the impacts of Pleistocene sea‐level fluctuations on the evolution of tropical marine taxa.” Journal of Biogeography 42.1 (2015): 25-38.

 

January 28th 2016

Gotelli, Nicholas J., and Robert K. Colwell. “Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness.” Ecology Letters 4.4 (2001): 379-391.

Drew, Joshua A., Kathryn L. Amatangelo, and Ruth A. Hufbauer. “Quantifying the Human Impacts on Papua New Guinea Reef Fish Communities across Space and Time.” PLOS One 10.10 (2015): e0140682.

 

February 2nd, 2016

Russ, Garry R., et al. “Marine reserve benefits local fisheries.” Ecological Applications 14.2 (2004): 597-606.

Edgar, Graham J., et al. “Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features.” Nature 506.7487 (2014): 216-220.

 

February 4th 2016

Gaines, Steven D., et al. “Designing marine reserve networks for both conservation and fisheries management.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.43 (2010): 18286-18293.

Sutcliffe, P. R., et al. “The effectiveness of marine reserve systems constructed using different surrogates of biodiversity.” Conservation Biology 29.3 (2015): 657-667.

 

February 9th 2016

Rose, Naomi A., and E. C. M. Parsons. ““Back off, man, I’m a scientist!” When marine conservation science meets policy.Ocean & Coastal Management 115 (2015): 71-76.

Techera, Erika J., and Natalie Klein. “Fragmented governance: reconciling legal strategies for shark conservation and management.” Marine Policy 35.1 (2011): 73-78.

 

February 11th 2016

Anderson, Lee G. “The application of basic economic principles to real-world fisheries management and regulation.” Marine Resource Economics 30.3 (2015): 235-249.

Melnychuk, Michael C., et al. “Can catch share fisheries better track management targets?Fish and Fisheries 13.3 (2012): 267-290.

 

February 16th 2016

Debate: Species or Ecosystems

 

February 18th 2016

Lampert, Adam, et al. “Optimal approaches for balancing invasive species eradication and endangered species management.Science 344.6187 (2014): 1028-1031.

Albins, Mark A., and Mark A. Hixon. “Worst case scenario: potential long-term effects of invasive predatory lionfish (Pterois volitans) on Atlantic and Caribbean coral-reef communities.Environmental Biology of Fishes 96.10-11 (2013): 1151-1157.

 

February 23rd 2016

Lascelles, Ben, et al. “Migratory marine species: their status, threats and conservation management needs.Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 24.S2 (2014): 111-127.

Worm, Boris, et al. “Global catches, exploitation rates, and rebuilding options for sharks.Marine Policy 40 (2013): 194-204.

 

February 25th 2016

Test 1

 

March 1st, 2016

Vincent, Amanda CJ, et al. “The role of CITES in the conservation of marine fishes subject to international trade.Fish and Fisheries 15.4 (2014): 563-592.

Ban, Natalie C., et al. “Systematic conservation planning: a better recipe for managing the high seas for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.” Conservation Letters 7.1 (2014): 41-54.

 

March 3rd 2016

Allnutt, Thomas F., et al. “Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.” PLOS One 7.2 (2012): e28969.

Makino, Azusa, et al. “Incorporating conservation zone effectiveness for protecting biodiversity in marine planning.” PLOS One (2013): e78986.

 

March 8th 2016

Rude, Jeremy, et al. “Ridge to reef modelling for use within land–sea planning under data‐limited conditions.Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems (2015). In press

VanWormer, Elizabeth, et al. “Using molecular epidemiology to track Toxoplasma gondii from terrestrial carnivores to marine hosts: implications for public health and conservation.PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (2014): e2852.

March 10th 2016

Kindsvater, Holly et al. “Ten principles from evolutionary ecology essential for effective marine conservationEcology and Evolution (2016)

 

March 15th, 2016

Spring Break

 

March 17th, 2016

Spring Break

 

March 22nd, 2016

Heymans, Johanna Jacomina, et al. “Global patterns in ecological indicators of marine food webs: a modelling approach.PLOS One 9.4 (2014): e95845.

Flynn, Kevin J., et al. “Ocean acidification with (de) eutrophication will alter future phytoplankton growth and succession.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 282.1804 (2015): 20142604.

 

March 24th, 2016

Brown, Christopher J., and Rowan Trebilco. “Unintended cultivation, shifting baselines, and conflict between objectives for fisheries and conservation.” Conservation Biology 28.3 (2014): 677-688.

 

March 29th, 2016

Linares, Cristina, et al. “Assessing the effectiveness of marine reserves on unsustainably harvested long‐lived sessile invertebrates.” Conservation Biology 26.1 (2012): 88-96.

Castilla, Juan Carlos. “Coastal marine communities: trends and perspectives from human-exclusion experiments.Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14.7 (1999): 280-283.

 

March 31st 2016

Manzello, Derek P., et al. “Ocean acidification refugia of the Florida Reef Tract.” PLOS One 7.7 (2012): e41715.

DelVecchia, Amanda G., et al. “Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests.” PeerJ 2 (2014): e388.

 

April 5th, 2016

Cacciapaglia, Chris, and Robert Woesik. “Reef‐coral refugia in a rapidly changing ocean.” Global Change Biology 21.6 (2015): 2272-2282.

Freeman, Lauren A. “Robust Performance of Marginal Pacific Coral Reef Habitats in Future Climate Scenarios.” PLOS One 10.6 (2015): e0128875.

 

April 7th 2016

Debate: Climate Change and conservation

 

April 12th 2016

Test 2

 

April 14th 2016

Heenehan, Heather, et al. “Using Ostrom’s common-pool resource theory to build toward an integrated ecosystem-based sustainable cetacean tourism system in Hawaii.Journal of Sustainable Tourism 23.4 (2015): 536-556.

Gallagher, Austin J., et al. “Biological effects, conservation potential, and research priorities of shark diving tourism.” Biological Conservation 184 (2015): 365-379.

 

April 19th 2016

Drew, Joshua A. “Use of traditional ecological knowledge in marine conservation.” Conservation Biology 19.4 (2005): 1286-1293.

Beaudreau, Anne H., Phillip S. Levin, and Karma C. Norman. “Using folk taxonomies to understand stakeholder perceptions for species conservation.” Conservation Letters 4.6 (2011): 451-463.

 

April 21st 2016

Eriksson, Hampus, et al. “Contagious exploitation of marine resources.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13.8 (2015): 435-440.

McClanahan, T. R., et al. “Biomass‐based targets and the management of multispecies coral reef fisheries.” Conservation Biology 29.2 (2015): 409-417.

 

April 26th 2016

Norse, Elliott A., et al. “Sustainability of deep-sea fisheries.Marine Policy 36.2 (2012): 307-320.

Boschen, R. E., et al. “Mining of deep-sea seafloor massive sulfides: A review of the deposits, their benthic communities, impacts from mining, regulatory frameworks and management strategies.” Ocean & Coastal Management 84 (2013): 54-67.

 

April 28th 2016

Roman, Joe, et al. “Lifting baselines to address the consequences of conservation success.Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30.6 (2015): 299-302.

Sheehan, Emma V., et al. “Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.” PLOS One (2013): e83883.

 

 

 

 

 

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